Prevention of Progression in Myopia: A Systematic Review

Diseases. 2018 Sep 30;6(4):92. doi: 10.3390/diseases6040092.


The prevalence of myopia has increased worldwide in recent decades and now is endemic over the entire industrial world. This increase is mainly caused by changes in lifestyle and behavior. In particular, the amount of outdoor activities and near work would display an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several strategies have been reported as effective. Spectacles and contact lenses have shown only slight results in the prevention of myopia and similarly ortokerathology should not be considered as a first-line strategy, given the high risk of infectious keratitis and the relatively low compliance for the patients. Thus, to date, atropine ophthalmic drops seem to be the most effective treatment for slowing the progression of myopia, although the exact mechanism of the effect of treatment is still uncertain. In particular, low-dose atropine (0.01%) was proven to be an effective and safe treatment in the long term due to the lowest rebound effect with negligible side effects.

Keywords: ATOM; atropine; myopia; myopia prevention; orthokeratology; spectacles.

Publication types

  • Review