All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition

Nat Methods. 2018 Oct;15(10):823-831. doi: 10.1038/s41592-018-0142-8. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Abstract

Optical assays of synaptic strength could facilitate studies of neuronal transmission and its dysregulation in disease. Here we introduce a genetic toolbox for all-optical interrogation of synaptic electrophysiology (synOptopatch) via mutually exclusive expression of a channelrhodopsin actuator and an archaerhodopsin-derived voltage indicator. Optically induced activity in the channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons generated excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials that we optically resolved in reporter-expressing neurons. We further developed a yellow spine-targeted Ca2+ indicator to localize optogenetically triggered synaptic inputs. We demonstrated synOptopatch recordings in cultured rodent neurons and in acute rodent brain slice. In synOptopatch measurements of primary rodent cultures, acute ketamine administration suppressed disynaptic inhibitory feedbacks, mimicking the effect of this drug on network function in both rodents and humans. We localized this action of ketamine to excitatory synapses onto interneurons. These results establish an in vitro all-optical model of disynaptic disinhibition, a synaptic defect hypothesized in schizophrenia-associated psychosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials*
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Electrophysiological Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Ketamine / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Synapses / drug effects
  • Synapses / physiology*
  • Synaptic Transmission / drug effects*

Substances

  • Ketamine