Repulsive Environment Attenuation during Adult Mouse Optic Nerve Regeneration

Neural Plast. 2018 Sep 12;2018:5851914. doi: 10.1155/2018/5851914. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

The regenerative capacity of CNS tracts has ever been a great hurdle to regenerative medicine. Although recent studies have described strategies to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate axons through the optic nerve, it still remains to be elucidated how these therapies modulate the inhibitory environment of CNS. Thus, the present work investigated the environmental content of the repulsive axon guidance cues, such as Sema3D and its receptors, myelin debris, and astrogliosis, within the regenerating optic nerve of mice submitted to intraocular inflammation + cAMP combined to conditional deletion of PTEN in RGC after optic nerve crush. We show here that treatment was able to promote axonal regeneration through the optic nerve and reach visual targets at twelve weeks after injury. The Regenerating group presented reduced MBP levels, increased microglia/macrophage number, and reduced astrocyte reactivity and CSPG content following optic nerve injury. In addition, Sema3D content and its receptors are reduced in the Regenerating group. Together, our results provide, for the first time, evidence that several regenerative repulsive signals are reduced in regenerating optic nerve fibers following a combined therapy. Therefore, the treatment used made the CNS microenvironment more permissive to regeneration.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Nerve Crush / adverse effects*
  • Nerve Regeneration / physiology*
  • Optic Nerve / pathology*
  • Optic Nerve / physiology*
  • Optic Nerve / ultrastructure
  • Optic Nerve Injuries / metabolism
  • Optic Nerve Injuries / pathology*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Retina / pathology
  • Retina / ultrastructure