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, 2018, 4598067
eCollection

Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Followed by Macroporous Resin Purification for Maximal Recovery of Functional Components and Removal of Toxic Components From Ginkgo biloba Leaves

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Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Followed by Macroporous Resin Purification for Maximal Recovery of Functional Components and Removal of Toxic Components From Ginkgo biloba Leaves

Guisheng Zhou et al. Biomed Res Int.

Abstract

In the present study, the process of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) followed by macroporous resin purification was successfully developed to achieve maximal recovery of functional components (flavonoids and ginkgolides) with minimal contents of toxic components (alkylphenols) from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Three effective extracted factors including HAc%, EtOH%, and UAE power were screened by Plackett-Burman design (PBD). The important variables were further optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD). By combination of PBD and RCCD, the resulting optimal UAE conditions were as follows: HAc% of 1.8%, EtOH% of 63%, ultrasound power of 303 W, G. biloba leaves powder amount of 1.0 g (solvent-to-solid ratio 40 mL/g), particle size of 60 mesh, extraction time of 40 min, and extraction temperature of 45°C. Under the optimum conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 25.1 ± 0.81 mg/g, ginkgolides was 10.6 ± 0.57 mg/g, and alkylphenols was 3.96 ± 0.31 mg/g. Moreover, the further enriching the functional components and removing toxic components from the obtained extracts of G. biloba leaves using the above optimum UAE condition was successfully achieved by macroporous resin DA-201. After column adsorption and desorption on DA-201, the content of total flavonoids was 36.51 ± 1.53%, ginkgolides was 13.24 ± 0.85%, and alkylphenols was 7.0 ± 1.0 μg/g from the obtained dry extracts (drug to extract ratio of 45-50:1) of G. biloba leaves which were complied with Chinese pharmacopoeias.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structures of the 25 investigated compounds. The code name of each compound represent the same meaning as described the sequence of each standard in Section 2.1.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Representative chromatograms for the extract of G. biloba leaves monitored in negative mode with ESI-Q/TOF-MS. The peak numbers represent the same meanings as described the sequence of standards in Section 2.1.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Pareto chart showing evaluated seven variables on the yields of flavonoids (a), ginkgolides (b), and alkylphenols (c) from G. biloba leaves. Variables with t-values higher than the critical value (2.776) were regarded as statistically significant.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Three-dimensional contour plots showing the experimental factors and their mutual interactions: (a) effect of HAc% and EtOH% on the yield of flavonoids, (b) effect of HAc% and UAE power on the yield of flavonoids, and (c) effect of EtOH% and UAE power on the yield of flavonoids.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Three-dimensional contour plots showing the experimental factors and their mutual interactions: (a) effect of HAc% and EtOH% on the yield of ginkgolides, (b) effect of HAc% and UAE power on the yield of ginkgolides, and (c) effect of EtOH% and UAE power on the yield of ginkgolides.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Three-dimensional contour plots showing the experimental factors and their mutual interactions: (a) effect of HAc% and EtOH% on the yield of alkylphenols, (b) effect of HAc% and UAE power on the yield of alkylphenols, and (c) effect of EtOH% and UAE power on the yield of alkylphenols.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Elution conditions of flavonoids, ginkgolides, and alkylphenols from DA-201 macroporous resin. (a) Effect of ethanol concentration on desorption of total target compounds; (b) effect of elution volume on desorption of total target compounds. Results were expressed as the mean value ± standard deviation (n = 3).

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