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. 2018 Dec;243(Pt B):1434-1449.
doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.062. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Air Pollution-Derived PM 2.5 Impairs Mitochondrial Function in Healthy and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseased Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

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Air Pollution-Derived PM 2.5 Impairs Mitochondrial Function in Healthy and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseased Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

B Leclercq et al. Environ Pollut. .

Abstract

In order to clarify whether the mitochondrial dysfunction is closely related to the cell homeostasis maintenance after particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure, oxidative, inflammatory, apoptotic and mitochondrial endpoints were carefully studied in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased human bronchial epithelial (DHBE) cells acutely or repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM2.5. Some modifications of the mitochondrial morphology were observed within all these cell models repeatedly exposed to the highest dose of PM2.5. Dose- and exposure-dependent oxidative damages were reported in BEAS-2B, NHBE and particularly COPD-DHBE cells acutely or repeatedly exposed to PM2.5. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-p45 related factor 2 (NRF2) gene expression and binding activity, together with the mRNA levels of some NRF2 target genes, were directly related to the number of exposures for the lowest PM2.5 dose (i.e., 2 μg/cm2), but, surprisingly, inversely related to the number of exposures for the highest dose (i.e., 10 μg/cm2). There were dose- and exposure-dependent increases of both nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) binding activity and NF-κB target cytokine secretion in BEAS-2B, NHBE and particularly COPD-DHBE cells exposed to PM2.5. Mitochondrial ROS production, membrane potential depolarization, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP production were significantly altered in all the cell models repeatedly exposed to the highest dose of PM2.5. Collectively, our results indicate a cytosolic ROS overproduction, inducing oxidative damage and activating oxygen sensitive NRF2 and NF-kB signaling pathways for all the cell models acutely or repeatedly exposed to PM2.5. However, one of the important highlight of our findings is that the prolonged and repeated exposure in BEAS-2B, NHBE and in particular sensible COPD-DHBE cells further caused an oxidative boost able to partially inactivate the NRF2 signaling pathway and to critically impair mitochondrial redox homeostasis, thereby producing a persistent mitochondrial dysfunction and a lowering cell energy supply.

Keywords: Air pollution-derived PM(2.5); Healthy and sensitive COPD phenotypes; Human bronchial epithelial cells; Inflammation; Mitochondrial function; NRF2.

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