A Phase I/II Study of Evofosfamide, A Hypoxia-activated Prodrug with or without Bortezomib in Subjects with Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Jan 15;25(2):478-486. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1325. Epub 2018 Oct 2.


Purpose: The presence of hypoxia in the diseased bone marrow presents a new therapeutic target for multiple myeloma. Evofosfamide (formerly TH-302) is a 2-nitroimidazole prodrug of the DNA alkylator, bromo-isophosphoramide mustard, which is selectively activated under hypoxia. This trial was designed as a phase I/II study investigating evofosfamide in combination with dexamethasone, and in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Patients and methods: Fifty-nine patients initiated therapy, 31 received the combination of evofosfamide and dexamethasone, and 28 received the combination of evofosfamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone. Patients were heavily pretreated with a median number of prior therapies of 7 (range: 2-15). All had previously received bortezomib and immunomodulators. The MTD, treatment toxicity, and efficacy were determined.

Results: The MTD was established at 340 mg/m2 evofosfamide + dexamethasone with dose-limiting mucositis at higher doses. For the combination of evofosfamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone, no patient had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the recommended phase II dose was established at 340 mg/m2. The most common ≥grade 3 adverse events (AE) were thrombocytopenia (25 patients), anemia (24 patients), neutropenia (15 patients), and leukopenia (9 patients). Skin toxicity was reported in 42 (71%) patients. Responses included 1 very good partial response (VGPR), 3 partial response (PR), 2 minor response (MR), 20 stable disease (SD), and 4 progressive disease (PD) for evofosfamide + dexamethasone and 1 complete response (CR), 2 PR, 1 MR, 18 SD, and 5 PD for evofosfamide + bortezomib + dexamethasone. Disease stabilization was observed in over 80% and this was reflective of the prolonged overall survival of 11.2 months.

Conclusions: Evofosfamide can be administered at 340 mg/m2 twice a week with or without bortezomib. Clinical activity has been noted in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed refractory multiple myeloma.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Bortezomib / administration & dosage
  • Disease Progression
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Myeloma / etiology
  • Multiple Myeloma / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nitroimidazoles / administration & dosage
  • Nitroimidazoles / adverse effects
  • Nitroimidazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Phosphoramide Mustards / administration & dosage
  • Phosphoramide Mustards / adverse effects
  • Phosphoramide Mustards / therapeutic use*
  • Retreatment
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Nitroimidazoles
  • Phosphoramide Mustards
  • TH 302
  • Bortezomib