K-252 compounds (K-252a and b isolated from Nocardiopsis sp. (1) and their synthetic derivatives) were found to inhibit cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C to various extents. The inhibitions were of the competitive type with respect to ATP. K-252a was a non-selective inhibitor for these three protein kinases with Ki values 18-25 nM. K-252b showed a comparable potency for protein kinase C (Ki, 20nM), whereas inhibitory potencies for cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases were reduced. KT5720 and KT5822 selectively inhibited cAMP-dependent (Ki, 60nM) and cGMP-dependent (Ki, 2.4nM) protein kinases, respectively.