Empagliflozin as Adjunctive to Insulin Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes: The EASE Trials

Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2560-2569. doi: 10.2337/dc18-1749. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of empagliflozin 10- and 25-mg doses plus a unique lower dose (2.5 mg) as adjunct to intensified insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Research design and methods: The EASE (Empagliflozin as Adjunctive to inSulin thErapy) program (N = 1,707) included two double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials: EASE-2 with empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 243), 25 mg (n = 244), and placebo (n = 243), 52-week treatment; and EASE-3 with empagliflozin 2.5 mg (n = 241), 10 mg (n = 248), 25 mg (n = 245), and placebo (n = 241), 26-week treatment. Together they evaluated empagliflozin 10 mg and 25 mg, doses currently approved in treatment of type 2 diabetes, and additionally 2.5 mg on 26-week change in glycated hemoglobin (primary end point) and weight, glucose time-in-range (>70 to ≤180 mg/dL), insulin dose, blood pressure, and hypoglycemia.

Results: The observed largest mean placebo-subtracted glycated hemoglobin reductions were -0.28% (95% CI -0.42, -0.15) for 2.5 mg, -0.54% (-0.65, -0.42) for 10 mg, and -0.53% (-0.65, -0.42) for 25 mg (all P < 0.0001). Empagliflozin 2.5/10/25 mg doses, respectively, reduced mean weight by -1.8/-3.0/-3.4 kg (all P < 0.0001); increased glucose time-in-range by +1.0/+2.9/+3.1 h/day (P < 0.0001 for 10 and 25 mg); lowered total daily insulin dose by -6.4/-13.3/-12.7% (all P < 0.0001); and decreased systolic blood pressure by -2.1/-3.9/-3.7 mmHg (all P < 0.05). Genital infections occurred more frequently on empagliflozin. Adjudicated diabetic ketoacidosis occurred more with empagliflozin 10 mg (4.3%) and 25 mg (3.3%) but was comparable between empagliflozin 2.5 mg (0.8%) and placebo (1.2%). Severe hypoglycemia was rare and frequency was similar between empagliflozin and placebo.

Conclusions: Empagliflozin improved glycemic control and weight in T1D without increasing hypoglycemia. Ketoacidosis rate was comparable between empagliflozin 2.5 mg and placebo but increased with 10 mg and 25 mg. Ketone monitoring for early ketoacidosis detection and intervention and lower empagliflozin doses may help to reduce this risk.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02414958 NCT02580591.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / administration & dosage*
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / adverse effects
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Glucosides / administration & dosage*
  • Glucosides / adverse effects
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Placebos
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight Loss

Substances

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucosides
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Placebos
  • empagliflozin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02414958
  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02580591