Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common, life-threatening genetic disorder that is best managed when diagnosed early by newborn screening. However, SCD is most prevalent in low-resource regions of the world where newborn screening is rare and diagnosis at the point-of-care is challenging. In many such regions, the majority of affected children die, undiagnosed, before the age of 5 years. A rapid and affordable point-of-care test for SCD is needed. The diagnostic accuracy of HemoTypeSC, a point-of-care immunoassay, for SCD was evaluated in individuals who had SCD, hemoglobin C disease, the related carrier (trait) states, or a normal hemoglobin phenotype. Children and adults participated in low-, medium- and high-resource environments (Ghana [n = 383], Martinique [n = 46], and USA [n = 158]). Paired blood specimens were obtained for HemoTypeSC and a reference diagnostic assay. HemoTypeSC testing was performed at the site of blood collection, and the reference test was performed in a laboratory at each site. In 587 participants, across all study sites, HemoTypeSC had an overall sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 99.9% across all hemoglobin phenotypes. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for sickle cell anemia. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of normal and trait states were >99%. HemoTypeSC is an inexpensive (<$2 per test), accurate, and rapid point-of-care test that can be used in resource-limited regions with a high prevalence of SCD to provide timely diagnosis and support newborn screening programs.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.