Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy leads to changes in lifestyle mediators of overweight and obesity in community-dwelling adults.
Method: Six electronic databases were systematically searched up to 04 October, 2017. Analyses were restricted to randomised controlled trials that examined the effect of integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy on lifestyle mediators of overweight and obesity (physical activity, diet, body composition) in community-dwelling adults. Meta-analyses were conducted using change scores from baseline in outcome measures specific to the lifestyle mediators of overweight and obesity to determine standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence.
Results: Ten randomised controlled trials involving 1949 participants were included. Results revealed moderate quality evidence that integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy had a significant effect in increasing physical activity levels in community-dwelling adults (SMD: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.31, p < 0.05). The combined intervention resulted in a small, non-significant effect in body composition changes (SMD: -0.12, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.01, p = 0.07). Insufficient evidence existed for outcome measures relating to dietary change.
Discussion: The addition of integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behaviour therapy to usual care can lead to modest improvements in physical activity and body composition for community-dwelling adults. The available evidence demonstrates that it is feasible to integrate MI with CBT and that this combined intervention has the potential to improve health-related outcomes.
Conclusion: This review details recommendations for future research including the adoption of uniform objective outcome measures and well-defined interventions with sufficient follow-up durations and assessments of treatment fidelity.
Keywords: Body composition; Health behaviour; Health promotion; Obesity; Physical activity.