B cells thwart antigenic aggressions by releasing immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and IgE, which deploy well-understood effector functions. In contrast, the role of secreted IgD remains mysterious. We found that some B cells generated IgD-secreting plasma cells following early exposure to external soluble antigens such as food proteins. Secreted IgD targeted basophils by interacting with the CD44-binding protein galectin-9. When engaged by antigen, basophil-bound IgD increased basophil secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, which facilitated the generation of T follicular helper type 2 cells expressing IL-4. These germinal center T cells enhanced IgG1 and IgE but not IgG2a and IgG2b responses to the antigen initially recognized by basophil-bound IgD. In addition, IgD ligation by antigen attenuated allergic basophil degranulation induced by IgE co-ligation. Thus, IgD may link B cells with basophils to optimize humoral T helper type 2-mediated immunity against common environmental soluble antigens.
Keywords: B cell; CD44; IgD; Th2; allergy; antibody; basophil; galectin; humoral immunity; mucosal immunity.
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