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Practice Guideline
, 41 (12), 2669-2701

Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)

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Practice Guideline

Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)

Melanie J Davies et al. Diabetes Care.

Abstract

The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes convened a panel to update the prior position statements, published in 2012 and 2015, on the management of type 2 diabetes in adults. A systematic evaluation of the literature since 2014 informed new recommendations. These include additional focus on lifestyle management and diabetes self-management education and support. For those with obesity, efforts targeting weight loss, including lifestyle, medication, and surgical interventions, are recommended. With regards to medication management, for patients with clinical cardiovascular disease, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with proven cardiovascular benefit is recommended. For patients with chronic kidney disease or clinical heart failure and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, an SGLT2 inhibitor with proven benefit is recommended. GLP-1 receptor agonists are generally recommended as the first injectable medication.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Decision cycle for patient-centered glycemic management in type 2 diabetes.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Glucose-lowering medication in type 2 diabetes: overall approach. CV, cardiovascular; DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor; SU, sulfonylurea.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Choosing glucose-lowering medication in those with established ASCVD, HF, and CKD. CV, cardiovascular; DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor; SU, sulfonylurea.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Choosing glucose-lowering medication if compelling need to minimize weight gain or promote weight loss. GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; T2DM, type 2 diabetes; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor; SU, sulfonylurea.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Choosing glucose-lowering medication if compelling need to minimize hypoglycemia. DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Choosing glucose-lowering medication if cost is a major issue. DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor; SU, sulfonylurea.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Intensifying to injectable therapies. FRC, fixed-ratio combination; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; FBG, fasting blood glucose; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; max, maximum; PPG, postprandial glucose.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Considering oral therapy in combination with injectable therapies. DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis; DPP-4i, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor; GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; SGLT2i, SGLT2 inhibitor; SU, sulfonylurea.

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