Helminths stimulate the secretion of Th2 cytokines, like IL-4, and suppress lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation. This suppression depends on the production of immune-modulatory TGF-β and is associated with TGF-β-dependent in vivo expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). In vivo expansion of Tregs is under investigation for its potential as a therapy for GVHD. Nonetheless, the mechanism of induced and TGF-β-dependent in vivo expansion of Tregs, in a Th2 polarized environment after helminth infection, is unknown. In this study, we show that helminth-induced IL-4 production by host cells is critical to the induction and maintenance of TGF-β secretion, TGF-β-dependent expansion of Foxp3+ Tregs, and the suppression of GVHD. In mice with GVHD, the expanding donor Tregs express the Th2-driving transcription factor, GATA3, which is required for helminth-induced production of IL-4 and TGF-β. In contrast, TGF-β is not necessary for GATA3 expression by Foxp3+ Tregs or by Foxp3- CD4 T cells. Various cell types of innate or adaptive immune compartments produce high quantities of IL-4 after helminth infection. As a result, IL-4-mediated suppression of GVHD does not require invariant NKT cells of the host, a cell type known to produce IL-4 and suppress GVHD in other models. Thus, TGF-β generation, in a manner dependent on IL-4 secretion by host cells and GATA3 expression, constitutes a critical effector arm of helminthic immune modulation that promotes the in vivo expansion of Tregs and suppresses GVHD.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.