Mechanisms of neuropathogenesis in HIV and HCV: similarities, differences, and unknowns

J Neurovirol. 2018 Dec;24(6):670-678. doi: 10.1007/s13365-018-0678-5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.


HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have both been associated with cognitive impairment. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has dramatically changed the nature of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons, while the role of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in neurocognition of HCV-infected individuals remains unclear. Also, whether HIV and HCV interact to promote neurocognitive decline or whether they each contribute an individual effect continues to be an open question. In this work, we review the virally mediated mechanisms of HIV- and HCV-mediated neuropathogenesis, with an emphasis on the role of dual infection, and discuss observed changes with HIV viral suppression and HCV functional cure on neurocognitive impairments.

Keywords: HAND; HCV; HIV; Neuropathogenesis; Neuropathology; Neuroradiology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex / complications*
  • AIDS Dementia Complex / virology*
  • Coinfection / virology*
  • Hepatitis C / complications*
  • Hepatitis C / virology*
  • Humans