High prevalence of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs) in pre-malignant cutaneous lesions of immunocompetent individuals using a new broad-spectrum primer system, and identification of HPV210, a novel Gamma-PV type

Virology. 2018 Dec;525:182-191. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.09.006. Epub 2018 Oct 4.


Genus Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is the most diverse and largest clade within the Papillomaviridae family. A novel set of degenerate primers targeting the E1 gene was designed and further used in combination with the well-known CUT PCR assay to assess HPV prevalence and genus distribution in a variety of cutaneous samples from 448 immunocompetent individuals. General HPV, Gamma-PV and mixed infections prevalence were significantly higher in actinic keratosis with respect to benign and malignant neoplasms, respectively (p = 0.0047, p = 0.0172, p = 0.00001). Gamma-PVs were significantly more common in actinic keratosis biopsies than Beta- and Alpha-PVs (p = 0.002). The full-length genome sequence of a novel putative Gamma-PV type was amplified by 'hanging droplet' long-range PCR and cloned. The novel virus, designated HPV210, clustered within species Gamma-12. This study provides an additional tool enabling detection of HPV infections in skin and adds new insights about possible early roles of Gamma-PVs in the development of cutaneous malignant lesions.

Keywords: Actinic keratosis; CUT PCR assay; Gamma-PV PCR; Gammapapillomavirus; Genomic characterization; HPV210.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Gammapapillomavirus / classification
  • Gammapapillomavirus / genetics*
  • Gammapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Keratosis, Actinic / virology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*
  • Young Adult