Class switch recombination (CSR) is a DNA recombination reaction that diversifies the effector component of antibody responses. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which targets transcriptionally active immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) switch donor and acceptor DNA. The 3' Igh super-enhancer, 3' regulatory region (3'RR), is essential for acceptor region transcription, but how this function is regulated is unknown. Here, we identify the chromatin reader ZMYND8 as an essential regulator of the 3'RR. In B cells, ZMYND8 binds promoters and super-enhancers, including the Igh enhancers. ZMYND8 controls the 3'RR activity by modulating the enhancer transcriptional status. In its absence, there is increased 3'RR polymerase loading and decreased acceptor region transcription and CSR. In addition to CSR, ZMYND8 deficiency impairs somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Igh, which is also dependent on the 3'RR. Thus, ZMYND8 controls Igh diversification in mature B lymphocytes by regulating the activity of the 3' Igh super-enhancer.
Keywords: 3′ regulatory region; Igh super-enhancer; ZMYND8; class switch recombination; germline transcription; somatic hypermutation.
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