Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maturity status at the time of surgery on final spinal height in patients with an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using the spine-pelvic index (SPI). The SPI is a self-control ratio that is independent of age and maturity status.
Patients and methods: The study recruited 152 female patients with a Lenke 1 AIS. The additional inclusion criteria were a thoracic Cobb angle between 45° and 70°, Risser 0 to 1 or 3 to 4 at the time of surgery, and follow-up until 18 years of age or Risser stage 5. The patients were stratified into four groups: Risser 0 to 1 and selective fusion surgery (Group 1), Risser 0 to 1 and non-selective fusion (Group 2), Risser 3 to 4 and selective fusion surgery (Group 3), and Risser 3 to 4 and non-selective fusion (Group 4). The height of spine at follow-up (HOSf) and height of pelvis at follow-up (HOPf) were measured and the predicted HOS (pHOS) was calculated as 2.22 (SPI) × HOPf. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for statistical analysis.
Results: Of the 152 patients, there were 32 patients in Group 1, 27 patients in Group 2, 48 patients in Group 3, and 45 patients in Group 4. Significantly greater HOSf was observed in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (p = 0.03) and in Group 4 compared with Group 2 (p = 0.02), with similar HOPf (p = 0.75 and p = 0.83, respectively), suggesting that patients who undergo surgery at Risser grade of 0 to 1 have a shorter spinal height at follow-up than those who have surgery at Risser 4 to 5. HOSf was similar to pHOS in both Group 1 and Group 2 (p = 0.62 and p = 0.45, respectively), indicating that undergoing surgery at Risser 0 to 1 does not necessarily affect final spinal height.
Conclusion: This study shows that fusion surgery at Risser 0 may result in growth restriction unlike fusion surgery at Risser 3 to 4. Despite such growth restriction, AIS patients could reach their predicted or 'normal' spinal height after surgery regardless of baseline maturity status due to the longer baseline spinal length in AIS patients and the remaining growth potential at the non-fusion levels. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:1372-6.