Trajectories and Predictors of Longitudinal Preexposure Prophylaxis Adherence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

J Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 5;218(10):1551-1559. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy368.


Background: Adherence is necessary for efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and text-messaging methods are promising tools for both adherence assessment and support. Although PrEP adherence is variable, little research has examined patterns of variability or factors associated with longitudinal use.

Methods: In the context of a randomized controlled trial of text-messaging versus standard of care for PrEP adherence, 181 men who have sex with men received once-daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and daily adherence texts for 48 weeks. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar trajectories of text-reported adherence. Between-group differences in pharmacologic measures of adherence (ie, tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate levels), as well as predictors and study-end attitudes associated with group membership, were examined.

Results: GMM identified 4 trajectories of text-reported adherence. Classes with higher text-reported adherence had higher drug concentrations. Younger age and minority race were associated with lower adherence, and individuals in classes with lower adherence had greater baseline levels of depression, substance use concerns, and sexual risk. Differences in study satisfaction were also associated with adherence.

Conclusions: This study supports the use of text-reported PrEP adherence. Identifying factors associated with less-than-optimal adherence may aid clinicians in anticipating at-risk patients requiring augmented intervention.

Clinical trials registration: NCT01761643.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis / methods*
  • Text Messaging
  • Young Adult

Associated data