Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Diabetes Stress Questionnaire (DSQ) with adequate psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency, convergent, criterion, discriminant validity, construct validity, and measurement invariance).
Methods: In total, 181 youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) completed the 65-item DSQ, and archival data were obtained from 142 youth with T1D to serve as an independent cross-validation sample. Twenty-four items were chosen to retain the original eight scales of the DSQ and to maximize internal consistency and correlations to full subscales. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the proposed factor structure of the Diabetes Stress Questionnaire-Short Form (DSQ-SF) and to assess invariance of the DSQ-SF across sex, race, grade level, glycemic control, illness duration, and annual income categories.
Results: The 24-item DSQ-SF was found to have good internal consistency, factor structure and fit, correlated highly to the full scale (r = .98), and was invariant across sex, race, grade level (<9th grade or >9th grade), glycemic control, illness duration, and annual income.
Conclusions: The DSQ-SF appears to be a psychometrically robust measure of diabetes-specific stress in youth with T1D. Present findings suggest that the DSQ-SF has the potential to be a useful, quick, cost-effective, and comprehensive screening tool for identifying youth with T1D who may benefit from T1D-specific stress reduction interventions as a way to improve health behaviors, psychosocial well-being, and glycemic control.
Keywords: diabetes; statistical applications; stress.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology 2018.