TGM1 is the most common gene responsible for lamellar ichthyosis. Previous studies have suggested that patients with lamellar ichthyosis carrying two missense mutations in TGM1 show significantly less severe phenotypes than those with at least one truncating mutation in TGM1. Here, we report a patient with severe lamellar ichthyosis who was compound heterozygous for TGM1 missense mutations, including a novel one. A 22-year-old Japanese man presented with large, dark brown, plate-like scales on the extremities and small adherent scales on the face and trunk. His other clinical findings included ectropion, hair loss, hypohidrosis, hyperthermia in summer, palmoplantar keratoderma and constriction of the fingers. Dermoscopy revealed accentuated sulci cutis with numerous large keratotic plugs in the cristae cutis. Histologically, orthohyperkeratosis and mild acanthosis were noted. Electron microscopy showed reduced cornified envelope thickness and numerous lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. Mutation analysis revealed the patient to be compound heterozygous for missense mutations, c.620T>C (p.Leu207Pro) and c.1631A>G (p.Tyr544Cys), in TGM1. Furthermore, we showed that TGM1 enzymatic activity was largely absent in his epidermis. These findings led us to diagnose him as having lamellar ichthyosis. This study has two important notions. First, even two missense mutations in TGM1 can cause severe lamellar ichthyosis. Second, this is the first report of dermoscopic findings of lamellar ichthyosis, implicating the obstruction of sweat glands by keratotic plugs in the pathogenesis of hypohidrosis in the disease. In conclusion, this study provides further insights into genotype-phenotype correlations and pathogenesis in lamellar ichthyosis.
Keywords: TGM1; dermoscopy; genotype-phenotype correlation; lamellar ichthyosis; missense mutation.
© 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.