Sleep loss is associated with sleepiness, sustained attention, and memory deficits. However, vulnerability of higher cognitive processes (i.e. decision making) to sleep debt is less understood. Therefore, a major challenge is to understand why and how higher cognitive processes are affected by sleep debt. We had established in mice correlations between individual decision-making strategies, prefrontal activity, and regional monoaminergic levels. Now, we show that acute sleep debt (ASD) disturbs decision-making processes and provokes brain regional modifications of serotonin and dopamine that could explain why ASD promotes inflexible and more risk-prone behaviors. Finally, we highlight, for the first time, that in a large group of healthy inbred mice some of them are more sensitive to ASD by showing inflexible behavior and decision-making deficits. We were also able to predict mice that would be the most vulnerable to ASD depending of their behavior before ASD exposure.