Yeast HAP1 Activator Binds to Two Upstream Activation Sites of Different Sequence

Cell. 1987 Apr 10;49(1):19-27. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90751-3.


We show that the HAP1 protein binds in vitro to the upstream activation site (UAS) of the yeast CYC7 gene. Strikingly, this sequence bears no obvious similarity to the sequence bound by HAP1 at UAS1 of the CYC1 gene. The CYC1 and CYC7 sites compete for binding to HAP1 and have comparable affinities for the protein. The gross features of the interaction of HAP1 with the two sites are similar: multiple major and minor groove contacts, spanning 23 bp, on one helical face, with a back-side major groove contact toward one end. The precise positions of the contacts differ, however. A mutant form of HAP1, HAP1-18, abolishes the ability of the protein to bind to UAS1 but not CYC7 DNA. Possible mechanisms for how a single protein recognizes two sequences are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Cytochrome c Group / genetics
  • Cytochromes c*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Genes*
  • Genes, Fungal*
  • Mutation
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • Plasmids
  • Protein Binding
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • CYC1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Cytochrome c Group
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Cytochromes c