Purpose: To determine whether quadrivalent HPV vaccination is effective in reducing recurrent disease in women with a previous history of HPV disease.
Methods: All women under 45 years of age treated for HPV-linked disease and with negative HPV test, cytology and colposcopy 3 months after treatment were enrolled. Women were randomly assigned into two groups: a group that received HPV vaccine post treatment and a group that was only submitted to follow-up. Follow-up was performed every 6 months for a duration of at least 3 years. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the overall disease-free survival during the follow-up period. Statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test.
Results: From November 2013 to October 2014, we enrolled a total of 178 women at Careggi University Hospital in Florence and at Azienda USL in Massa Carrara. 12 out of 89 patients in the non-vaccination group recurred (13.5%), while 3 out of 89 patients in the vaccination group recurred (3.4%). The Kaplan-Meier curves showed a statistically difference in the log rank test (p = 0.0147) for the overall disease-free survival in the study groups during follow-up. The rate of recurrence was significantly higher in the non-vaccination group, with a p = 0.0279 by Fisher exact test.
Conclusion: The introduction of anti-HPV vaccination during the follow-up post treatment for HPV-linked disease is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrence. The clinical implication of this could be very important to influence post-treatment management of HPV disease.
Keywords: HPV; HPV vaccination; Secondary prevention; Squamous intraepithelial lesion.