Haliotis discus hannai, a species of Pacific abalone, is a highly valuable food source throughout Northeast Asia. As H. discus hannai primarily feed on brown algae and largely extract their energy from algal polysaccharides, understanding the mechanisms by which they digest algal polysaccharides is essential for elucidating their energy metabolism. Gut microbes, as well as the host animal, are involved in the process of polysaccharide degradation. To identify algal polysaccharide-digestion mechanisms and their origin, we analyzed the metagenome and metatranscriptome of abalone visceral extracts. Microbial communities were characterized using the 16S rRNA gene sequences in the metagenome and our results differed significantly from those of previous studies using traditional microbiological methods such as bacterial cultivation and cloning. A greater diversity of bacterial taxa was identified here than was previously identified using cultivation methods. Furthermore, the most abundant bacterial taxa also differed from previous studies, which is not common when comparing the results of bacterial culturing with those of molecular methodologies. Based on the metatranscriptome, overall functions were identified and additional analyses were performed on the coding sequences of algal polysaccharide-digestive enzymes, including alginate lyase. Results of the transcriptomic analyses suggest that alginate lyase in the visceral extracts of H. discus hannai was produced by the host itself, not by visceral bacteria. This is the first next-generation sequencing study performed on abalone to characterize the visceral microbiota and the source of the ability to digest algal polysaccharides by analyzing the metagenome and metatranscriptome together.