Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are commonly prescribed antineoplastic agents that cause irreversible cardiac injury. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is initiated by increased oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Oxidative stress enhances intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) by direct activation of its full-length isoform and (or) de novo expression of an N-terminal-truncated isoform (NTT-MMP-2). As MMP-2 is localized to the sarcomere, we tested whether doxorubicin activates intracellular MMP-2 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) and whether it thereby proteolyzes two of its identified sarcomeric targets, α-actinin and troponin I. Doxorubicin increased oxidative stress within 12 h as indicated by reduced aconitase activity. This was associated with a twofold increase in MMP-2 protein levels and threefold higher gelatinolytic activity. MMP inhibitors ARP-100 or ONO-4817 (1 μM) prevented doxorubicin-induced MMP-2 activation. Doxorubicin also increased the levels and activity of MMP-2 secreted into the conditioned media. Doxorubicin upregulated the mRNA expression of both full-length MMP-2 and NTT-MMP-2. α-Actinin levels remained unchanged, whereas doxorubicin downregulated troponin I in an MMP-independent manner. Doxorubicin induces oxidative stress and stimulates a robust increase in MMP-2 expression and activity in NRVM, including NTT-MMP-2. The sarcomeric proteins α-actinin and troponin I are, however, not targeted by MMP-2 under these conditions.
Keywords: cardiac myocyte; doxorubicin; doxorubicine; matrix metalloproteinase; myocyte cardiaque; métalloprotéinase matricielle; oxidative stress; sarcomere; stress oxydatif.