Factors Associated With Graft Rejection in the Cornea Preservation Time Study

Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Dec;196:197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2018.10.005. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Abstract

Purpose: To identify factors related to graft rejection following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS).

Design: Cohort study within a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Methods: A total of 1330 eyes of 1090 subjects undergoing DSAEK were randomized to receive a donor cornea with preservation time (PT) of 0-7 days (n = 675) or 8-14 days (n = 655) and followed for 3 years. Central endothelial cell density (ECD) was determined by a central image analysis reading center. Multivariable Cox models adjusted for PT, recipient diagnosis, and surgeon effect were used to identify factors associated with rejection.

Results: Cumulative probability of definite graft rejection was 3.6% (99% confidence interval 2.5%-5.3%). Younger recipient age was associated with graft rejection (P < .001; hazard ratio: 0.53 [0.33, 0.83] per decade). PT, donor-recipient sex mismatch, recipient diagnosis, recipient race, graft size, discontinuation of topical corticosteroids and immune-modulators, prior immunizations within 3 months, and prior glaucoma surgery were not associated with rejection (P > .01). Among clear grafts with an ECD measurement at baseline and 3 years (n = 913), endothelial cell loss (ECL) was greater in eyes that experienced a rejection episode (n = 27) than in those that did not (n = 886) (48% vs 38%, P = .03). Twelve of 44 eyes (27%) with definite graft rejection subsequently failed, comprising 15% of the 79 failures in the CPTS.

Conclusions: Graft rejection is uncommon after DSAEK and more likely with younger age, in a study cohort mostly > 50 years old. Rejection increases ECL, but it is not a leading cause of DSAEK failure.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Corneal Diseases / surgery*
  • Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty / methods*
  • Female
  • Graft Rejection*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Preservation / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors