Objectives: Treatment for nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is challenging. Rising antimicrobial resistance, especially in extended spectrum beta-lactamase production, inadvertently increases empiric carbapenem consumption. Three antipseudomonal carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem [MER], and doripenem [DOR]) are available commercially against MDR GNB in Singapore. The study aims to determine the most optimal empiric carbapenem dosing regimens (CDR) and evaluate their cost-effectiveness for GNB-BSI in the face of increasing MDR GNB.
Methods: Carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were generated for non-repeat GNB-BSI obtained in 2013-2014 from two hospitals. Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of various CDRs using the percentage of time above MIC for 40% (%T > MIC of 40%) as the pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter for efficacy. Carbapenem costs were based on patient antibiotic costs. Antibiotic cost-effectiveness was calculated as total daily drug cost/CFR.
Results: A total of 1,140 bloodstream isolates were collected. They comprised 116 Acinetobacter baumannii, 237 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 787 Enterobacteriaceae. All CDRs achieved ~40, ~80, and ≥90% CFRs against A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. Against P. aeruginosa, MER 2 g every 8 h infused over 3 h and DOR 1 g every 8 h infused over 4 h achieved CFRs 84 and 81%, respectively. Against Enterobacteriaceae, the cost of MER 2 g every 8 h infused over 3 h was the lowest among the three carbapenems at $0.40/percentage of CFR.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of PK-PD modeling to formulate the optimal selection of a cost-effective empiric CDR in antibiotics guidelines and formulary inclusion. The findings support the selection of high MER doses of prolonged infusions as empiric coverage for GNB-BSI in our institutions.
Keywords: Gram-negative bacteria; bloodstream infections; empiric carbapenem regimens; multidrug resistant.