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. 2018 Nov;113(8):779-786.
doi: 10.1111/vox.12716. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Anti-D Quantification in Relation to anti-D Titre, Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Measurement and Clinical Outcome in RhD-immunized Pregnancies

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Anti-D Quantification in Relation to anti-D Titre, Middle Cerebral Artery Doppler Measurement and Clinical Outcome in RhD-immunized Pregnancies

Agneta Wikman et al. Vox Sang. .

Abstract

Background: The optimal strategy to monitor RhD-immunized pregnancies is not evident. Whether a quantitative analysis of anti-D antibodies adds valuable information to anti-D titre is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of anti-D quantification in routine monitoring of RhD-immunized pregnancies.

Materials and methods: In a retrospective study, 64 consecutive pregnancies in 61 immunized women with anti-D titre ≥128 at any time during pregnancy were included. According to routine, at titre ≥128, anti-D quantification was performed by flow cytometry and the peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured by ultrasound. Decisions for treatment with intrauterine blood transfusion were based on increased peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery.

Results: Increasing anti-D concentrations correlated well to increasing anti-D titres, but at each titre value, there was a large interindividual variation, in the determined anti-D concentration. Intrauterine transfusions were initiated in 35 pregnancies according to algorithms based on ultrasound measurements, at anti-D concentrations of 2·4-619 IU/ml and titre 128-16 000. Sixty pregnancies resulted in a live-born child, three in miscarriage and one in termination of pregnancy. During the perinatal care in the neonatal intensive care unit, thirty-one of the neonates were treated with blood exchange transfusions and/or red cell transfusions and 47 were treated with phototherapy.

Conclusion: Anti-D quantification does not add further information compared to anti-D titre, in defining a critical level to start monitoring RhD-immunized pregnancies with Doppler ultrasound.

Keywords: RhD immunization; anti-D concentration; anti-D quantification; anti-D titre; intrauterine transfusion; pregnancy.

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