Proinflammatory cytokine levels and peri-implant parameters among cigarette smokers, individuals vaping electronic cigarettes, and non-smokers

J Periodontol. 2019 Apr;90(4):367-374. doi: 10.1002/JPER.18-0045. Epub 2018 Oct 26.


Background: Tobacco smoking compromises the prognosis of dental implant treatment and is associated with increased risk of peri-implant bone loss and increased implant failure rate. There is a dearth of studies that have compared clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among cigarette smokers (CS), individuals vaping e-cigarettes (e-cigs), and non-smokers (NS). This study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among CS, individuals' vaping e-cigs, and NS.

Methods: Thirty-two CS (group 1), 31 individuals vaping e-cigs (group 2), and 32 NS (group 3) were included. Demographic- and implant-related data were collected using a structured baseline questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were recorded and marginal bone loss (MBL) were assessed using standardized digital radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess levels of MMP-9 and IL-1β in peri-implant sulcular fluid. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze for correlations of MMP-9 and IL-1β levels with peri-implant parameters.

Results: BOP showed significantly higher values in group 3 as compared with groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). PI (P < 0.01), PD ≥ 4 mm (P < 0.01), and mean concentrations of MMP-9 (P < 0.001) and IL-1β (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than group 3. MBL was significantly higher in group 1 as compared with group 2 and group 3 (P < 0.01). Significant positive correlations were found between MMP-9 (P = 0.0198) and IL-1β (P = 0.0047) levels and MBL in group 1; and a significant positive correlation between IL-1β and MBL in group 2 (P = 0.0031).

Conclusions: Peri-implant health was compromised among CS than vaping individuals and NS. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in CS and vaping individuals may suggest greater peri-implant inflammatory response.

Keywords: alveolar bone loss; electronic nicotine delivery systems; interleukins; matrix metalloproteinases; peri-implantitis; vaping.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines
  • Dental Implants*
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems*
  • Humans
  • Non-Smokers
  • Smokers
  • Vaping*


  • Cytokines
  • Dental Implants