Purpose: To report the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor in the management of retinoblastoma.
Methods: Retrospective review of 35 eyes (33 patients) treated with at least one intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (ranibizumab and/or aflibercept) for new iris (n = 26) and/or retinal neovascularization (n = 21) after intravenous chemotherapy and/or intraarterial chemotherapy.
Results: Most eyes (n = 31/35, 89%) were Group D or E. Previous treatments were salvage intraarterial chemotherapy after intravenous chemotherapy (n = 21/35, 60%), first-line intraarterial chemotherapy (n = 7/35, 20%), and first-line intravenous chemotherapy (n = 7/35, 20%). Associated clinical features were retinal ischemia (94%), retinal detachment (51%), active tumor (34%), intravitreal hemorrhage (43%), and/or glaucoma (17%). Mean 1.6 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections/eye were given; 28 eyes received ranibizumab, 2 aflibercept, and 5 both agents. Eight eyes underwent complementary treatments of ischemic retina. Resolution of neovascularization was observed in 28 eyes (n = 28/35, 80%). Globe salvage was achieved in 51% (n = 18/35), including 25% of those with active tumor (n = 3/12). One eye became phthisic. Sixteen eyes were enucleated, nine for tumor relapse/progression. Five eyes had high-risk histopathologic risk factors and received adjuvant intravenous chemotherapy. All patients are alive with no extraocular extension nor metastases (mean follow-up 3.7 years, range 1.1-7.6).
Conclusion: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor contributed to a globe salvage rate of 51% by providing conditions to continue conservative treatment.