Background: Vedolizumab (ENTYVIO) is a humanized α4β7 integrin antagonist approved for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, which selectively blocks gut-specific lymphocyte trafficking. We evaluated the risk of opportunistic infections of interest in patients treated with vedolizumab.
Methods: We determined the frequency of opportunistic infections and tuberculosis in patients receiving vedolizumab in phase 3 clinical trials and post-marketing settings. We also evaluated adverse events reported in the post-marketing setting in patients with a history of or concurrent hepatitis B/C virus infection.
Results: The incidence of opportunistic infections in patients receiving vedolizumab was 0.7 (GEMINI 1 and 2 clinical trials) and 1.0 (long-term safety study) per 100 patient-years, with 217 events reported in approximately 114,071 patient-years of exposure (post-marketing setting). Most opportunistic infections were nonserious and the majority of patients continued treatment with vedolizumab. Clostridium difficile was the most commonly reported infection, with an incidence rate of 0.5 per 100 patient-years (clinical trials). Tuberculosis was reported at 0.1 per 100 patient-years (clinical trials), with 7 events in the post-marketing setting. No tuberculosis-related deaths were reported in either setting. No cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy were reported. In 29 patients with a history of or concurrent hepatitis B/C infection in the post-marketing setting, no viral reactivation was observed.
Conclusions: Clinical trials and post-marketing data showed that the rate of serious opportunistic infections in patients receiving vedolizumab was low and most patients could continue vedolizumab treatment. The frequency of tuberculosis infection was also low and no hepatitis B/C viral reactivation was reported.