Phosphorus intake was evaluated in 27 appropriate weight for gestational age, critically ill neonates who required total parenteral nutrition for 2 weeks. All received approximately 30 mg/kg/d elemental calcium. The low P intake group (1.01 mmol/kg/d, 30 mg/kg/d) showed signs of phosphate depletion: hypercalciuria, hypophosphatemia, and absence of phosphaturia. The high P intake group (1.67 mmol/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d) did not have signs of P depletion; however, they had high urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate excretion and marked phosphaturia, suggesting secondary hyperparathyroidism. The moderate P intake group (1.34 mmol/kg/d, 40 mg/kg/d) had evidence of neither phosphate depletion nor secondary hyperparathyroidism. This phosphorus dose appears to be appropriate for the very sick, poorly growing infant receiving total parenteral nutrition.