Unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly being used to cure nonmalignant hematologic diseases (NMHD) in patients who lack HLA matched related donors. Both graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain major barriers to safe and effective transplant for these patients requiring unrelated donors. Partial T cell depletion combined with peripheral stem cell transplantation (pTCD-PSCT) has the potential advantages of providing a high stem cell dose to facilitate rapid engraftment, maintaining cells that may facilitate engraftment, and decreasing GVHD risk compared with T cell-replete HSCT. Here, we report a single-institution, retrospective experience of unrelated donor pTCD-PSCT for pediatric patients with NMHD. From 2014 to 2017, 12 pediatric patients with transfusion-dependent NMHD underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) or mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) pTCD HSCT in our center using disease-specific conditioning. Donor PSCs underwent CD3+ T cell and CD19+ B cell depletion using CliniMACS, followed by a targeted addback of 1 × 105 CD3+ T cells/kg to the graft before infusion. All 12 patients demonstrated rapid trilinear engraftment. At a median follow-up of 740days (range, 279 to 1466), all patients were alive with over 92% total peripheral blood donor chimerism and without transfusion dependence or recurrence of their underlying hematologic disease. Immune reconstitution was rapid and comparable with T cell-replete HSCT. No patients developed severe acute GVHD (grades III to IV) or chronic extensive GVHD, and all patients had discontinued systemic immune suppression. Viral reactivations were common, but no patient developed symptoms of life-threatening infectious disease. Our data indicate that MUD and MMUD pTCD-PSCTs are safe and effective approaches that enable rapid engraftment and immune reconstitution, prevent severe GVHD, and expand availability of HSCT to any patients with NMHD who have closely MUDs.
Copyright © 2018 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.