Although dengue can progress to severe stages, the exact causes of this phenomenon are unknown; however, the possibility of monocyte participation is acknowledged. It has been suggested that monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate and non-classical) play differential roles in dengue immunopathology. Therefore, we determined the count of monocyte subsets and obtained the clinical information of patients with dengue. We noted a significant decrease in the count of non-classical monocytes in patients compared with controls. With this finding, we focused on studying the phenotype of non-classical monocytes in the present study. An increase in activation and differentiation markers, such as CD64, CD86, the percentage of tumor necrosis factor-α+ cells and exposure of phosphatidylserine, were recorded in the non-classical monocytes of patients compared with controls. Moreover, a significant decrease in the expression of CX3CR1 with a corresponding increase in the expressions of CCR2, CCR5, CD11b and CD54 was detected in the non-classical monocytes of patients in comparison with that of the controls. Significant increases in the frequency of microparticles from endothelium and in the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-10 were noted in the plasma of patients. These findings demonstrate that in patients with dengue, non-classical monocytes are activated, exhibiting a phenotype associated with more differentiation, produces tumor necrosis factor-α and has a profile of less endothelial surveillance closer to the cellular migration. These changes were associated with hepatic compromise, endothelial alteration and high concentration of circulating cytokines. Hence, alterations of non-classical monocytes seem to be associated with the immunopathology of dengue infection.
Keywords: dengue; monocyte subsets; monocytes; non-classical monocytes; severe dengue.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.