The utilisation of human dialyzable leukocyte extract (IMMODIN) as adjuvant in albendazole therapy on mouse model of larval cestode infection: Immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects

Int Immunopharmacol. 2018 Dec;65:148-158. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.09.045. Epub 2018 Oct 10.


Metacestode (larval) stages of zoonotic cestodes of medical and veterinary importance cause chronic infections associated with immunosuppression. During mouse model of cestode infection induced by larvae of Mesocestoides (M.) vogae, we investigated the effects of dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE) containing low-molecular weight substances (under 10 kDa) prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy human donors (available under commercial name IMMODIN). In the experiment, the effects of DLE as adjuvant to anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) as well ABZ mono-therapy were also investigated. We showed that DLE enhanced therapeutic effect of ABZ by significant reduction of parasites number in both biased sites. Furthermore, administration of DLE reduced fibrosis and concentrations of lipid peroxides in the liver and thereby showed cytoprotective effect. In contrast, higher hydroxyproline level and numbers of larvae enclosed in fibrous capsules were found in ABZ-treated group. In order to investigate whether DLE could affect parasite-induced immunosuppression, we evaluated selected immune parameters. The results showed that DLE administration to mice increased proliferation of concanavalin A stimulated splenic cells ex vivo. Similarly, in vitro study confirmed that DLE ameliorated hypo-responsiveness of T lymphocytes and partially reverted suppressive effect of parasites excretory-secretory products. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed higher numbers of T helper and NK cells in the spleen and peritoneal cavity of infected mice after DLE + ABZ therapy. We also found strongly reduced serum levels of TGF-β1 and IL-17 as well as modulation of cytokines associated with Th1/Th2 immunity. These results suggest that IMMODIN could serve as a suitable adjuvant to the primary anthelmintic therapy.

Keywords: Albendazole; Cestode infection; IMMODIN; Liver; NK cells; T lymphocytes.

MeSH terms

  • Albendazole / administration & dosage
  • Albendazole / therapeutic use*
  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / administration & dosage
  • Anthelmintics / pharmacology
  • Cestode Infections / drug therapy*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Humans
  • Immunomodulation
  • Liver Diseases, Parasitic / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Peritoneum / cytology
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects
  • Transfer Factor / administration & dosage
  • Transfer Factor / therapeutic use*


  • Anthelmintics
  • Transfer Factor
  • Albendazole