The presence of isolated de novo anti-DP antibodies is uncommon, making it difficult to determine the impact of anti-DP antibodies on graft outcome. We describe a case of acute antibody-mediated rejection mediated by de novo donor-specific anti-HLA-DP antibodies. Furthermore, the generation of non-donor-specific anti-DP antibodies (NDSAs) detected in the patient's sera was investigated. An 18-year-old woman with pretransplant 0% panel-reactive antibody received kidney transplantation from a living donor. She experienced combined acute T-cell-mediated and antibody-mediated rejection at 15 months after transplantation. High resolution HLA typing of the donor and the patient revealed that they were mismatched at both DPB1 (DPB1*31:01) and DPA1 (DPA1*02:02) loci. The single antigen bead (SAB) testing of patient's sera revealed antibodies against donor's DPB1*31:01 and DPA1*02:02 alleles. Antibodies against several non-donor-specific DP antigens were also detected. No antibodies against other HLA class I and II antigens were detected. In order to explain the reactivity pattern of NDSAs, HLAMatchmaker program was used to identify immunizing eplets shared between donor alleles and reactive beads. The analysis showed 84DEAV, a DPB1 eplet, as a shared eplet found on DPB1*31:01 (mismatched donor allele) and on DPB1-reactive alleles in SAB assay. Additionally, 50RA, a DPA1 eplet, was identified as a shared eplet found on DPA1*02:02 (mismatched donor allele) and on DPA1-reactive alleles in SAB assay. This case highlights the clinical significance of HLA-DP antibodies. Furthermore, the generation of NDSA anti-DP antibodies by epitope sharing underscores the importance of HLA-DP epitope matching in kidney transplantation.
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