[Venous thromboembolism and urological cancer: Epidemiology and therapeutically management]

Prog Urol. 2019 Jan;29(1):1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.purol.2018.09.002. Epub 2018 Oct 10.
[Article in French]


Introduction: Active cancer is a risk factor in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This is the second cause of death for these patients. In onco-urology, some cancers are associated with an increased risk of VTE. The aim of this study was to propose a focus of epidemiology and VTE therapy management.

Material and methods: A systematic analysis of the PubMed® database was performed through the PRISMA methodology using the followings keywords : "neoplasm", "venous thromboembolism", "prophylaxis", "pulmonary embolism", "urology". The original papers were included with a priority on: meta-analyzes, literature reviews, randomized controlled trials and good-level proof cohort studies. Only publications in English or French have been selected.

Results: The incidence of VTE was more important in case of renal carcinomas (3.5%/year). When surgery was proposed cystectomy was the riskiest procedure (2.6 to 11.6% VTE). Chemotherapy alone was an important risk factor increasing by a factor of six the occurrence of VTE. Hormonotherapy also increased this risk by induced hypogonadism. The curative treatment for VTE associated with cancers has to be performed through the injection of low molecular weight heparin. The implantation of a prophylactic treatment was not systematic among patients diagnosed with urological cancer.

Conclusion: The understanding of mechanisms associated with the occurrence of VTE among these patients has enabled to improve patient management, especially those suffering from urological cancer. Undeniably, frequency of VTE is probably underestimated by urologists during clinical practice.

Keywords: Bladder cancer; Cancer; Cancer de vessie; Carcinome à cellules claires; Embolie pulmonaire; Neoplasm; Prophylaxie; Prophylaxis; Prostate; Pulmonary embolism; Renal cell carcinoma; Thrombose veineuse; Urologie; Urology; Venous thromboembolism.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Urologic Neoplasms / complications
  • Urologic Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Urologic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / complications
  • Venous Thromboembolism / epidemiology*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / therapy*