Fetal anemia

Minerva Ginecol. 2019 Apr;71(2):97-112. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4784.18.04334-4. Epub 2018 Oct 11.


The diagnosis and management of fetal anemia has been at the forefront of advances in the fields of fetal physiology, immunology, fetal imaging, and fetal therapy among others. Alloimmunization and parvovirus infection are the leading cause of fetal anemia in the United States. The middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) diagnoses fetal anemia. Its discovery is considered one of the most important achievements in fetal medicine. Accumulation of experience in recent years as well as refinement of surgical techniques have led to safer invasive procedures. It is expected that long term follow-up of affected pregnancies, continues to reflect all these improvements in care. It is also expected that treatment of other less common causes of fetal anemia becomes more frequently reported and that the management principles of fetal anemia are successfully applied to other fetal pathologies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / diagnosis
  • Anemia / etiology
  • Anemia / therapy*
  • Female
  • Fetal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Fetal Diseases / etiology
  • Fetal Diseases / therapy*
  • Fetal Therapies / methods*
  • Humans
  • Middle Cerebral Artery / metabolism
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Care / methods