The overpowering effect of trauma on the immune system is undisputed. Severe trauma is characterized by systemic cytokine generation, activation and dysregulation of systemic inflammatory response complementopathy and coagulopathy, has been immensely instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the innate immune system during systemic inflammation. The compartmentalized functions of the innate and adaptive immune systems are being gradually recognized as an overlapping, interactive and dynamic system of responsive elements. Nonetheless the current knowledge of the complement cascade and its interaction with adaptive immune response mediators and cells, including T- and B-cells, is limited. In this review, we discuss what is known about the bridging effects of the complement system on the adaptive immune system and which unexplored areas could be crucial in understanding how the complement and adaptive immune systems interact following trauma.
Keywords: B-cells; T-cells; adaptive immunity; complement; innate immunity; trauma.