Oral biofilms attach onto both teeth surfaces and dental material surfaces in oral cavities. In the meantime, oral biofilms are not only the pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontitis, but also secondary caries and peri-implantitis, which would lead to the failure of clinical treatments. The material surfaces exposed to oral conditions can influence pellicle coating, initial bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation, due to their specific physical and chemical characteristics. To define the effect of physical and chemical characteristics of dental prosthesis and restorative material on oral biofilms, we discuss resin-based composites, glass ionomer cements, amalgams, dental alloys, ceramic, and dental implant material surface properties. In conclusion, each particular chemical composition (organic matrix, inorganic filler, fluoride, and various metallic ions) can enhance or inhibit biofilm formation. Irregular topography and rough surfaces provide favorable interface for bacterial colonization, protecting bacteria against shear forces during their initial reversible binding and biofilm formation. Moreover, the surface free energy, hydrophobicity, and surface-coating techniques, also have a significant influence on oral biofilms. However, controversies still exist in the current research for the different methods and models applied. In addition, more in situ studies are needed to clarify the role and mechanism of each surface parameter on oral biofilm development.
Keywords: biofilm; dental restorative material; resin-based composite; surface characteristics; surface roughness.