Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) are known as predictors of CVD in these patients. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury. Recently, elevated NGAL levels have been reported in patients with CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma NGAL levels and LVH/LVDD in patients with CKD.
Methods: This study included 332 patients with pre-dialysis CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73m2). Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed to measure the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Tissue Doppler imaging was used to measure early mitral inflow velocity (E) and the peak early mitral annular velocity (E'). Diastolic function was estimated using E' and the ratio of E to E' (E/E'). The associations of echocardiographic index with clinical and laboratory variables (age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, eGFR, albumin, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, total cholesterol, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), the inferior vena cava collapse index (IVCCI) < 50%, and plasma NGAL) were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Results: In multivariate logistic regression analysis, plasma NGAL was an independent predictor of LVH (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.02), P < 0.001). In addition, hypertension, intact PTH, and IVCCI < 50% were independent predictors of LVH. Plasma NGAL (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.02, P < 0.001) was also an independent factor of LVDD. Furthermore, hypertension, intact PTH, and IVCCI < 50% were independent predictors of LVDD. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve: 0.835, 95% CI: 0.792-0.879) showed the best cutoff value of plasma NGAL for identifying LVDD was ≥ 258 ng/ml with an associated sensitivity of 77.6% and a specificity of 87.6%.
Conclusion: Plasma NGAL levels were independent predictors of LVH and LVDD in patients with pre-dialysis CKD, suggesting that plasma NGAL could be a biomarker for LVH and LVDD in these patients.