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. 2018 Oct 15;23(10):2641.
doi: 10.3390/molecules23102641.

Dragon's Blood Sap: Storage Stability and Antioxidant Activity

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Free PMC article

Dragon's Blood Sap: Storage Stability and Antioxidant Activity

Juan D Escobar et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Currently, consumers are demanding additive-free, fresher, and more-natural products. Dragon's Blood Sap (DBS), the deep red latex of the specie of tree Croton lechleri (Müll. Arg.), contains a high concentration of phenolic compounds of great interest for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. These chemical compounds are highly susceptible to degradation. Therefore, DBS storage stability and its photo-oxidation was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry for 39 days at different temperatures (4⁻21 °C) and relative humidities (0⁻56%), as well as under UV light exposure. It was observed that the degradation of phenolic compounds was reduced at 0% relative humidity (RH), not showing a significant effect of temperature in the range studied. UV light irradiation degraded DBS in a 20%. DBS has an exceptional high and stable antioxidant content (≥93% inhibition percentage of DPPH), which makes it a unique property to consider the DBS as an antioxidant agent or ingredient for consumer products formulations.

Keywords: Dragon’s Blood Sap; FT-IR; UV-Vis spectrophotometry; antioxidant activity; proanthocyanidins; storage stability.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
UV-Vis spectrophotometry screening spectra of Dragon’s Blood Sap (DBS) at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Evolution of the DBS concentration under various % relative humidity (RH) and ambient temperature (~21 °C) after 39 days of storage according to the different absorption bands at 331 nm (A), at 347 nm; (B) at 464 nm; (C) and at 579 nm (D). Different letters within the graph (a–b) indicate significant differences among the conditions (p < 0.05). Different letters within the graph (ab, bc) indicate no differences among the samples (p > 0.05).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Evolution of the DBS concentration under various % relative humidity (RH) and ambient temperature (~21 °C) after 39 days of storage according to the different absorption bands at 331 nm (A), at 347 nm; (B) at 464 nm; (C) and at 579 nm (D). Different letters within the graph (a–b) indicate significant differences among the conditions (p < 0.05). Different letters within the graph (ab, bc) indicate no differences among the samples (p > 0.05).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test of the evolution of Dragon’s Blood Sap concentration after 39 days of storage at 21 °C and different relative humidity. Different letters within the graph (a–b) indicate significant differences among the conditions (p < 0.05). The ab value indicates no differences among the conditions (p > 0.05).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Evolution of DBS concentration after 39 days of storage under low (4 °C) and ambient temperature (~21 °C) and 0% RH, according to the different absorption bands: (A) 331 nm; (B) 347 nm; (C) 464 nm; (D) 579 nm. Different letters indicate significant differences among the samples (p < 0.05).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Evolution of DBS concentration after 39 days of storage under low (4 °C) and ambient temperature (~21 °C) and 0% RH, according to the different absorption bands: (A) 331 nm; (B) 347 nm; (C) 464 nm; (D) 579 nm. Different letters indicate significant differences among the samples (p < 0.05).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Evolution of DBS concentration after 39 days of storage under low (4 °C) and ambient temperature (~21 °C) and 0% RH, according to the different absorption bands: (A) 331 nm; (B) 347 nm; (C) 464 nm; (D) 579 nm. Different letters indicate significant differences among the samples (p < 0.05).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Tukey’s test of the evolution of Dragon’s Blood Sap concentration at different storage temperatures and 0% RH. Different letters indicate significant differences among the samples (p < 0.05).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Evolution of DBS concentration after 39 days of storage under UV-light according to the different absorption bands: 331 nm; 347 nm; 464 nm; 579 nm. Different letters indicate significant differences among the samples (p < 0.05). Different letters within the graph (abc, bc) indicate no differences among the samples (p > 0.05).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Typical Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum of freeze-dried DBS. Arrows indicates the Functional Groups bands discussed in the text.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Evolution of the decay percentage of DBS characteristic functional groups with respect to the internal standard band at 1519 cm−1 after 39 days under different temperatures, % RH, and UV-light irradiation: (A) Hydroxyl group (-OH) (3300 cm−1); (B) carbonyl group (C=O) (1715 cm−1); (C) alkenyl group (C=C) (1610 cm−1); (D) methylene group (C–H2) (1440 cm−1); and (E) methyl group (C–H3) (1342 cm−1).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Evolution of the decay percentage of DBS characteristic functional groups with respect to the internal standard band at 1519 cm−1 after 39 days under different temperatures, % RH, and UV-light irradiation: (A) Hydroxyl group (-OH) (3300 cm−1); (B) carbonyl group (C=O) (1715 cm−1); (C) alkenyl group (C=C) (1610 cm−1); (D) methylene group (C–H2) (1440 cm−1); and (E) methyl group (C–H3) (1342 cm−1).
Figure 8
Figure 8
Evolution of the decay percentage of DBS characteristic functional groups with respect to the internal standard band at 1519 cm−1 after 39 days under different temperatures, % RH, and UV-light irradiation: (A) Hydroxyl group (-OH) (3300 cm−1); (B) carbonyl group (C=O) (1715 cm−1); (C) alkenyl group (C=C) (1610 cm−1); (D) methylene group (C–H2) (1440 cm−1); and (E) methyl group (C–H3) (1342 cm−1).

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