Assessment of Water Quality Profile Using Numerical Modeling Approach in Major Climate Classes of Asia

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Oct 15;15(10):2258. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102258.


A river water quality spatial profile has a diverse pattern of variation over different climatic regions. To comprehend this phenomenon, our study evaluated the spatial scale variation of the Water Quality Index (WQI). The study was carried out over four main climatic classes in Asia based on the Koppen-Geiger climate classification system: tropical, temperate, cold, and arid. The one-dimensional surface water quality model, QUAL2Kw was selected and compared for water quality simulations. Calibration and validation were separately performed for the model predictions over different climate classes. The accuracy of the water quality model was assessed using different statistical analyses. The spatial profile of WQI was calculated using model predictions based on dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate (NO3), and pH. The results showed that there is a smaller longitudinal variation of WQI in the cold climatic regions than other regions, which does not change the status of WQI. Streams from arid, temperate, and tropical climatic regions show a decreasing trend of DO with respect to the longitudinal profiles of main river flows. Since this study found that each climate zone has the different impact on DO dynamics such as reaeration rate, reoxygenation, and oxygen solubility. The outcomes obtained in this study are expected to provide the impetus for developing a strategy for the viable improvement of the water environment.

Keywords: Asia; QUAL2Kw; WQI; climate classes; water quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  • Climate*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Nitrates / analysis
  • Oxygen
  • Rivers / chemistry*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Quality*


  • Nitrates
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Oxygen