Background: Multi-institutional data describing remedial parathyroidectomy compared with index parathyroidectomy are scarce.
Methods: Using data in the Collaborative Endocrine Surgery Quality Improvement Program (2014-2017), baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing remedial parathyroidectomy versus index parathyroidectomy were examined using bivariate and multivariate methods. Rates of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia at ≥ 180 days were assessed.
Results: Among 6,795 patients, 367 (5.4%) underwent remedial parathyroidectomy. A single localization study was done in 24.8% versus 26.9% of remedial parathyroidectomy versus index parathyroidectomy (P = .37). Patients undergoing remedial parathyroidectomy had higher rates of preoperative laryngoscopy (45.5% versus 6.2%, P < .001), intraoperative nerve monitoring (57.5% versus 34.5%, P < .001), and < 50% drop in hyperparathyroidism than those undergoing index parathyroidectomy (9.6% versus 3.3%, P < .001). Among patients with ≥ 180 days follow-up, none of the remedial parathyroidectomy versus three index parathyroidectomy patients (0.3%) had vocal cord dysfunction. Hypercalcemia rates for remedial parathyroidectomy and index parathyroidectomy were 10.5% versus 5.0 (P = .07), and hypocalcemia rates were 10.5% versus 2.4% (P < .001). After multivariate adjustment, failure to cure was 4.0 times more likely in remedial parathyroidectomy than index parathyroidectomy (P < .001).
Conclusion: This is the first multi-institutional examination of remedial parathyroidectomy outcomes in the Collaborative Endocrine Surgery Quality Improvement Program. Nerve injury rates are low; high rates of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia suggest potential opportunities to refine the preoperative and intraoperative management of patients undergoing remedial parathyroidectomy.
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