Host NAD+ metabolism and infections: therapeutic implications

Int Immunol. 2019 Feb 15;31(2):59-67. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxy068.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is both a crucial coenzyme and a cosubstrate for various metabolic reactions in all living cells. Maintenance of NAD+ levels is essential for cell energy homeostasis, survival, proliferation and function. Mounting evidence points to NAD+ as one of the major modulators of immuno-metabolic circuits, thus regulating immune responses and functions. Recent studies delineate impaired host NAD+ metabolism during chronic infections and inflammation, suggesting NAD+ replenishment as an avenue to ameliorate deleterious inflammatory responses. Here, we discuss aspects of NAD+ biosynthesis and consumption, NAD+ biology during infections and how NAD+ metabolism can be intervened with pharmacologically to enhance the host's immunological fitness against pathogens.

Keywords: NAD+; bacteria; immunity; immuno-metabolism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Homeostasis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Infections / drug therapy*
  • Infections / immunology
  • Infections / metabolism
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • NAD / biosynthesis
  • NAD / immunology
  • NAD / metabolism*


  • NAD