Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is both a crucial coenzyme and a cosubstrate for various metabolic reactions in all living cells. Maintenance of NAD+ levels is essential for cell energy homeostasis, survival, proliferation and function. Mounting evidence points to NAD+ as one of the major modulators of immuno-metabolic circuits, thus regulating immune responses and functions. Recent studies delineate impaired host NAD+ metabolism during chronic infections and inflammation, suggesting NAD+ replenishment as an avenue to ameliorate deleterious inflammatory responses. Here, we discuss aspects of NAD+ biosynthesis and consumption, NAD+ biology during infections and how NAD+ metabolism can be intervened with pharmacologically to enhance the host's immunological fitness against pathogens.
Keywords: NAD+; bacteria; immunity; immuno-metabolism.
© The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.