The damaging effects of ADP/Fe/NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation were studied on the enzymes and membranes of rat liver mitochondria. Succinate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, prevented or delayed most of the damage caused by the peroxidation on different mitochondrial structures and functions. There were marked abnormalities on the electrophoretic pattern of mitochondrial proteins during the course of lipid peroxidation. The disappearance of particular polypeptide bands and the accumulation of high-molecular-weight aggregates could be observed. Succinate was found to delay these effects. As a consequence of lipid peroxidation the succinate oxidase activity of mitochondria was decreased. The succinate dehydrogenase enzyme and the component(s) of the respiratory chain were inactivated. Succinate prevented the inactivation of succinate dehydrogenase but did not protect the other components of terminal oxidation chain. From the matrix enzymes the glutamate dehydrogenase retained its full activity but the NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase was inactivated. The mitochondrial membranes became permeable to large protein molecules. Succinate prevented the inactivation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and delayed the release of protein molecules from mitochondria.