Dietary salt reduction and exercise are lifestyle modifications for salt-sensitive hypertensives. While exercise has prominent metabolic effects, salt has an adverse effect on metabolic syndrome, of which hypertension is a hallmark. We hypothesized that dietary salt impacts metabolism in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension. An untargeted metabolomic approach demonstrates lower circulating levels of the ketone body, beta-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), in high salt-fed hypertensive rats. Despite the high salt intake, specific rescue of βOHB levels by nutritional supplementation of its precursor, 1,3-butanediol, attenuates hypertension and protects kidney function. This beneficial effect of βOHB was likely independent of gut-microbiotal and Th17-mediated effects of salt and instead facilitated by βOHB inhibiting the renal Nlrp3 inflammasome. The juxtaposed effects of dietary salt and exercise on salt-sensitive hypertension, which decrease and increase βOHB respectively, indicate that nutritional supplementation of a precursor of βOHB provides a similar benefit to salt-sensitive hypertension as exercise.
Keywords: Nlrp3; blood pressure; hypertension; inflammasome; inflammation; ketone body; kidney; metabolomics; salt; β-hydroxybutyrate.
Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.