Combination of phenolic profiles, pharmacological properties and in silico studies to provide new insights on Silene salsuginea from Turkey

Comput Biol Chem. 2018 Dec;77:178-186. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2018.10.005. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Abstract

The genus Silene is renowned in Turkey for its traditional use as food and medicine. Currently, there are 138 species of Silene in Turkey, amongst which have been several studies for possible pharmacological potential and application in food industry. However, there is currently a paucity of data on Silene salsuginea Hub.-Mor. This study endeavours to access its antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) was used to detect phenolic compounds, and molecular docking was performed to provide new insights for tested enzymes and phenolics. High amounts of apigenin (534 μg/g extract), ferulic acid (452 μg/g extract), p-coumaric acid (408 μg/g extract), and quercetin (336 μg/g extract) were detected in the methanol extract while rutin (506 μg/g extract) was most abundant in the aqueous extract. As for their biological properties, the methanol extract exhibited the best antioxidant effect in the DPPH and CUPRAC assays, and also the highest inhibition against tyrosinase. The aqueous extract was the least active enzyme inhibitor but showed the highest antioxidant efficacy in the ABTS, FRAP, and metal chelating assays. At a concentration of 15.6 μg/mL, the methanol extract resulted in a moderate decrease (25.1%) of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells. Among the phenolic compounds, epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and kaempferol showed the highest binding affinity towards the studied enzymes in silico. It can be concluded that extracts of S. salsuginea are a potential source of functional food ingredients but need further analytical experiments to explore its complexity of chemical compounds and pharmacological properties as well as using in vivo toxicity models to establish its maximum tolerated dose.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Docking; Enzyme inhibitor; Phenolic profile, antioxidant; Silene salsuginea.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Benzothiazoles / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Biphenyl Compounds / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cholinesterases / metabolism
  • Computer Simulation
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Nitric Oxide / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / isolation & purification
  • Phenols / pharmacology*
  • Picrates / antagonists & inhibitors
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Silene / chemistry*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Sulfonic Acids / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Turkey
  • alpha-Amylases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • alpha-Amylases / metabolism
  • alpha-Glucosidases / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antioxidants
  • Benzothiazoles
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Phenols
  • Picrates
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid
  • Nitric Oxide
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Cholinesterases
  • alpha-Amylases
  • alpha-Glucosidases