Protected Area management: Fusion and confusion with the ecosystem services approach

Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 15;651(Pt 2):2432-2443. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.033. Epub 2018 Oct 6.


For many years, Protected Areas (PA) have been an important tool for conserving nature. Recently, also societal aspects have been introduced into PA management via the introduction of the Ecosystem Services (ES) approach. This review discusses the historical background of PAs, PA management, and the ES approach. We then discuss the relevance and applicability of the ES approach for PA management, including the different definitions of ES, different classification methods, and the ways in which ES are measured. We conclude that there are still major challenges ahead in using the ES approach in PA management and so recommendations are given on the way in which the ES approach should be integrated into PA management.

Keywords: Ecosystem services; Management; Nature conservation; Protected Areas.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Conservation of Natural Resources / methods*
  • Ecosystem*