Glutamate-Related Antibodies and Peripheral Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Bipolar Disorder and Lithium Prophylaxis

Neuropsychobiology. 2019;77(1):49-56. doi: 10.1159/000493740. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of the antineuronal antibodies anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), during manic and depressive episodes and in remission compared to euthymic patients receiving long-term lithium therapy.

Methods: Serum levels of anti-NMDAR and anti-GAD 450/620 antibodies, as well as IGF-1, were measured using the ELISA method in 19 manic and 17 depressed patients both in an acute episode and in remission after the episode. All of the subjects were under pharmacological treatment. The control group included 18 euthymic BD patients receiving lithium for 9-44 years (mean 22 ± 11) in whom a single measurement was performed.

Results: Serum levels of anti-NMDAR antibodies were higher in acute manic episodes than in lithium-treated patients. Serum levels of anti-GAD 450/620 antibodies were higher in acute manic and depressive episodes compared to remission after the respective episode. Their values in both acute manic and depressive episodes were higher than those in lithium-treated patients. Serum levels of IGF-1 were higher in acute manic episodes and in remission after mania than in lithium-treated patients.

Conclusion: Higher levels of anti-NMDAR and anti-GAD antibodies during episodes may point to an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in BD. Increased levels of IGF-1 during an acute manic episode and in remission after mania may constitute a compensatory mechanism against excitotoxicity. Lower levels of anti-NMDAR, anti-GAD antibodies, and IGF-1 during long-term lithium treatment may reflect normalization of this processes, contributing to mood stabilization.

Keywords: Bipolar disorder; Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; Insulin-like growth factor 1; Lithium prophylaxis; N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies / blood*
  • Bipolar Disorder / blood
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy
  • Bipolar Disorder / immunology*
  • Female
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / immunology*
  • Remission Induction

Substances

  • Autoantibodies
  • IGF1 protein, human
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase